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There is a fair degree of consistency between adjusted estimates of PEF, but all have wide 95% Cr Is.

With the many different causes of PID, the extent of the role of in upper genital tract samples varied from 12% to 61%, reflecting large variation over time and place.However, these studies lacked a control group, and results depended markedly on the sites from which samples were taken.In this article, we describe 5 separate although not completely independent methods to estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of PID due to .The PEF is the most commonly used form of population attributable risk fraction and is defined as the proportional reduction in disease risk that would be achieved by eliminating the exposure of interest from the population, assuming the exposure is causally related to the disease [9].Our search identified 3 studies (Table 1) [11–13], none of which stratified by age group or reported sufficient data to attempt to adjust for confounders.

The studies were pooled using a fixed-effect logistic regression model to obtain a pooled estimate of the OR.For example, the ratio of the incidence of PID to the incidence of .As such, estimates of any 3 of these quantities can be used to calculate the fourth, and for independent estimates of all 4 to be coherent they must be consistent subject to this constraint.Finally, we review the various estimates of PEF and consider the strengths and weaknesses of each method.We briefly describe the 5 methods for estimating the PEF, in turn.The formula is only correct when there are no confounding factors or when all confounders have been adjusted for in the estimation of the odds ratio.